Pesticide Effects

Pesticide Effects on Key Natural Enemies

Pesticides influence the success of biocontrol

A major objective for this project was to test the effects of five insecticides and two fungicides often used in tree fruits on six important natural enemies found in western orchards. Certain pesticides can disrupt natural enemy populations leading to secondary pest outbreaks, particularly of mites and aphids. Disruptive pesticides can have acute and sub-lethal effects both of which can lead to decreases in natural enemy populations. Acute mortality occurs when a pesticide causes mortality of an adult or immature natural enemy within 48 hours of exposure to the chemical. Sub-lethal effects are more subtle, such as reduced number of eggs produced or how long a natural enemy lives, but can also lead to large decreases in population size.
The pesticide table (below) shows results from laboratory tests conducted on selected natural enemy species using a 100% field rate or diluted 10% field rate (to measure sub-lethal effects if the full rate caused high mortality). Here we combined the acute and sub-lethal effects to show the overall impact of selected pesticides on natural enemy population growth. The number and color within each block represent the reduction in population growth over a single generation compared to a control, or untreated, population (see legend and figure 1).

Figure 1. Population growth over a single generation comparing natural enemies exposed to pesticides to those not treated.

population growth chart

More about pesticide effects on natural enemies can be found in our 2012 annual progress report under Objective 1.

These results suggest that certain pesticides are more selective than others and that it may be difficult to conserve all natural enemies under all circumstances, making it important to know which natural enemies and pests are present in your orchard. This information can assist pest management decision makers in selecting pesticides that will help to enhance and conserve natural enemies in their orchard operations.

The pesticide effects shown in the table below are grouped by color with respect to their severity:

For the natural enemy description click/hoover over the image. Detailed information about the Acute and Sublethal effects can be seen by clicking/hoovering on the word links below each colored value. For an explanation of that data, click/hoover on the following links:  Acute   Sublethal.

If viewed on a mobile device, use landscape for best results

Note: "Exirel" is the new registered name for Cyazypyr



Avg. Disruptive Value: 

Altacor

Exirel

Delegate

Rimon

Warrior

Kumulus
Kocide/
Manzate

Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublthal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal
Acute
Sublethal

Extras

Investigator Links Useful Links
Vince Jones Jessica Goldberger WSU DAS UCIPM
Elizabeth Beers Dave Horton WSU-TFREC BC Information Ctr.
Jay Brunner Nick Mills USDA-ARS Wapato WSU PMTP
Steve Castagnoli Peter Shearer OSU-MCAREC Orchard Pest Management
Karina Gallardo Tom Unruh ESPM WA Crop Protection Guide

The "Average Disruptive Value" shown along the top of table reflects an overall effect by each pesticide based on the mean percent reduction in natural enemy population growth over a single generation. The color gradient underlying each value gives a visual representation for the range of effects for that pesticide. For example, a gradient favoring green indicates a less disruptive pesticide as compared to one which favors more red.

Juvenile Life History Parameters Measured
Footnote Key
Adult Life History Parameters Measured
Footnote Key
Kocide/Manzate Sublethal
Effects on T. pallidusi

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: -4.5
  Fecundity/Fertility: -21.4
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control) **
  Dev. Time: 0.0
  Sex Raio: 0.5
Kumulus Sublethal Effects
on T. pallidusi

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: -57.7 *
  Fecundity/Fertility: -64.4 *
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control) **
  Dev. Time: 0.0 *
  Sex Raio: 14.5 *
Warrior Sublethal Effects
on T. pallidusi

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: -9.7 *
  Fecundity/Fertility: -84.5 *
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control) **
  Dev. Time: 0.0 *
  Sex Raio: 25.5 *
Rimon Sublethal Effects
on T. pallidusi

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: -5.2
  Fecundity/Fertility: -14.8
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control) **
  Dev. Time: 0.0
  Sex Raio: 22.7
Delegate Sublethal Effects
on T. pallidusi

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: na ‡
  Fecundity/Fertility: na ‡
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control) **
  Dev. Time: na ‡
  Sex Raio: na ‡
Exirel (Cyazypyr) Sublethal Effects
on T. pallidusi

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: na ‡
  Fecundity/Fertility: na ‡
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control) **
  Dev. Time: na ‡
  Sex Raio: na ‡
Altacor Sublethal Effects
on T. pallidusi

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: 0.0
  Fecundity/Fertility: -25.2
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control) **
  Dev. Time: 0.0
  Sex Raio: 25.1
Kocide/Manzate Sublethal
Effects on A. mali

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: -2.0
  Fecundity/Fertility: -0.8
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control) **
  Dev. Time: 0.0
  Sex Raio: -5.6
Kumulus Sublethal Effects
on A. mali

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: -9.8
  Fecundity/Fertility: -0.3
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control) **
  Dev. Time: 0.0
  Sex Raio: -1.4
Warrior Sublethal Effects
on A. mali

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: nd †
  Fecundity/Fertility: nd †
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control) **
  Dev. Time: 0.0
  Sex Raio: na ‡
Rimon Sublethal Effects
on A. mali

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: -10.3
  Fecundity/Fertility: -11.5
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control) **
  Dev. Time: 0.0
  Sex Raio: 8.3
Delegate Sublethal Effects
on A. mali

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: na ‡
  Fecundity/Fertility: na ‡
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control) **
  Dev. Time: na ‡
  Sex Raio: na ‡
Exirel (Cyazypyr) Sublethal Effects
on A. mali

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: -21.1
  Fecundity/Fertility: -55.9
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control) **
  Dev. Time: 0.0
  Sex Raio: 11.7
Altacor Sublethal Effects
on A. mali

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: -8.2
  Fecundity/Fertility: -5.1
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control) **
  Dev. Time: 0.0
  Sex Raio: 16.7
Kocide/Manzate Sublethal
Effects on H. convergens

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: -76.3
  Fecundity/Fertility: -45.1
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Chronic Mortality: 86.7
  Dev. Time: na ‡
  Sex Raio: na ‡
Kumulus Sublethal Effects
on H. convergens

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: nd †
  Fecundity/Fertility: nd †
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Chronic Mortality: 89.3
  Dev. Time: na ‡
  Sex Raio: na ‡
Warrior Sublethal Effects
on H. convergens

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: na ‡
  Fecundity/Fertility: na ‡
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Chronic Mortality: na ‡
  Dev. Time: na ‡
  Sex Raio: na ‡
Rimon Sublethal Effects
on H. convergens

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: -11.5
  Fecundity/Fertility: -86.8
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Chronic Mortality: 100
  Dev. Time: na ‡
  Sex Raio: na ‡
Delegate Sublethal Effects
on H. convergens

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: 6.9
  Fecundity/Fertility: -30.8
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Chronic Mortality: 73.3
  Dev. Time: 13.3
  Sex Raio: 35.5
Exirel (Cyazypyr) Sublethal Effects
on H. convergens

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: -19.8
  Fecundity/Fertility: -63.7
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Chronic Mortality: 93.3
  Dev. Time: na ‡
  Sex Raio: na ‡
Altacor Sublethal Effects
on H. convergens

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: -76.3
  Fecundity/Fertility: -45.1
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Chronic Mortality: 86.7
  Dev. Time: na ‡
  Sex Raio: na ‡
Kocide/Manzate Sublethal
Effects on D. brevis

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: -11.5
  Fecundity/Fertility: -42.4
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Chronic Mortality: 18.6
  Dev. Time: 2.5
  Sex Raio: -13.3
Kumulus Sublethal Effects
on D. brevis

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: -16.4
  Fecundity/Fertility: -80.0
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Chronic Mortality: 37.0
  Dev. Time: 10.2
  Sex Raio: -6.2
Warrior Sublethal Effects
on D. brevis

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: -80.2
  Fecundity/Fertility: na ‡
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Chronic Mortality: 100.0 *
  Dev. Time: na ‡
  Sex Raio: na ‡
Rimon Sublethal Effects
on D. brevis

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: -52.0
  Fecundity/Fertility: -93.3
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Chronic Mortality: 100.0 *
  Dev. Time: na ‡
  Sex Raio: na ‡
Delegate Sublethal Effects
on D. brevis

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: -42.8
  Fecundity/Fertility: -86.7
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Chronic Mortality: 18.6
  Dev. Time: 5.1
  Sex Raio: 9.9
Exirel (Cyazypyr) Sublethal Effects
on D. brevis

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: -4.1
  Fecundity/Fertility: -16.7
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Chronic Mortality: 25.9
  Dev. Time: -0.7
  Sex Raio: 72.5
Altacor Sublethal Effects
on D. brevis

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: 6.8
  Fecundity/Fertility: -40.0
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Chronic Mortality: 3.7
  Dev. Time: -0.7
  Sex Raio: 48.9
Kocide/Manzate Sublethal
Effects on C. carnea

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: 14.7
  Fecundity/Fertility: -39.4
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Chronic Mortality: 14.2
  Dev. Time: 0.5
  Sex Raio: 10.0
Kumulus Sublethal Effects
on C. carnea

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: 18.3
  Fecundity/Fertility: -24.3
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Chronic Mortality: 17.9
  Dev. Time: 12.4
  Sex Raio: -10.2
Warrior Sublethal Effects
on C. carnea

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: -4.1 *
  Fecundity/Fertility: -83.2 *
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Chronic Mortality: 72.3 *
  Dev. Time: 9.0 *
  Sex Raio: 27.0 *
Rimon Sublethal Effects
on C. carnea

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: 14.8
  Fecundity/Fertility: -97.8
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Chronic Mortality: 100.0 *
  Dev. Time: na ‡
  Sex Raio: na ‡
Delegate Sublethal Effects
on C. carnea

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: -1.5 *
  Fecundity/Fertility: -13.5 *
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Chronic Mortality: 69.5
  Dev. Time: 0.0
  Sex Raio: -11.5
Exirel (Cyazypyr) Sublethal Effects
on C. carnea

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: -85.0 *
  Fecundity/Fertility: na ‡
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Chronic Mortality: 97.1
  Dev. Time: na ‡
  Sex Raio: na ‡
Altacor Sublethal Effects
on C. carnea

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: -62.3 *
  Fecundity/Fertility: -81.6 *
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Chronic Mortality: 80.9
  Dev. Time: na ‡
  Sex Raio: na ‡
Kocide/Manzate Sublethal
Effects on G. occidentalis

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: nd†
  Fecundity/Fertility: -63.6
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Chronic Mortality: nd†
  Dev. Time: nd†
  Sex Raio: nd†
Kumulus Sublethal Effects
on G. occidentalis

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: nd†
  Fecundity/Fertility: -62.8
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Chronic Mortality: nd†
  Dev. Time: nd†
  Sex Raio: nd†
Warrior Sublethal Effects
on G. occidentalis

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: nd†
  Fecundity/Fertility: -72.1
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Chronic Mortality: nd†
  Dev. Time: nd†
  Sex Raio: nd†
Rimon Sublethal Effects
on G. occidentalis

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: nd†
  Fecundity/Fertility: -53.5
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Chronic Mortality: nd†
  Dev. Time: nd†
  Sex Raio: nd†
Delegate Sublethal Effects
on G. occidentalis

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: nd†
  Fecundity/Fertility: -100.0
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Chronic Mortality: nd†
  Dev. Time: nd†
  Sex Raio: nd†
Exirel (Cyazypyr) Sublethal Effects
on G. occidentalis

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: nd†
  Fecundity/Fertility: -1.7
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Chronic Mortality: nd†
  Dev. Time: nd†
  Sex Raio: nd†
Altacor Sublethal Effects
on G. occidentalis

Adult Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Longevity: nd†
  Fecundity/Fertility: -12.6
Juvenile Sublethal Effects
(% change from control)
  Chronic Mortality: nd†
  Dev. Time: nd†
  Sex Raio: nd†
Kocide/Manzate Acute Effects
on A. mail

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 3.7%
  at 100% fr: 0.0%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: -2.8%
  at 100% fr: -0.4%
Kumulus Acute Effects
on A. mail

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 0.0%
  at 100% fr: 10.0%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: -4.8%
  at 100% fr: -1.2%
Warrior Acute Effects
on A. mail

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 30.8%
  at 100% fr: 53.9%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 33.9%
  at 100% fr: 69.9%
Rimon Acute Effects
on A. mail

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 17.9%
  at 100% fr: 28.6%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 0.9%
  at 100% fr: 0.0%
Delgate Acute Effects
on A. mail

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 100%
  at 100% fr: 100%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: ND
  at 100% fr: ND
Exirel (Cyazypyr) Acute Effects
on A. mail

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 30.0%
  at 100% fr: 40.0%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 1.3%
  at 100% fr: 5.0%
Altacor Acute Effects
on A. mail

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 23.1%
  at 100% fr: 34.6%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 1.6%
  at 100% fr: 2.0%
Kocide/Mazate Acute Effects
on G. occidentalis

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 26.2%
  at 100% fr: 28.6%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 5.9%
  at 100% fr: 5.9%
Kumulus Acute Effects
on G. occidentalis

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 4.6%
  at 100% fr: 22.7%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 76.1%
  at 100% fr: 94.3%
Warrior Acute Effects
on G. occidentalis

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 66.7%
  at 100% fr: 94.4%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 93.0%
  at 100% fr: 87.2%
Rimon Acute Effects
on G. occidentalis

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 0.0%
  at 100% fr: 33.3%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 0.0%
  at 100% fr: 1.0%
Delgate Acute Effects
on G. occidentalis

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 56.5%
  at 100% fr: 95.6%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 0.0%
  at 100% fr: 14.6%
Exirel (Cyazypyr) Acute Effects
on G. occidentalis

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 14.3%
  at 100% fr: 0.0%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 0.0%
  at 100% fr: 15.0%
Altacor Acute Effects
on G. occidentalis

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 8.0%
  at 100% fr: 8.0%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 0.5%
  at 100% fr: 4.8%
Kocide/Manzate Acute Effects
on H. convergens

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 0.0%
  at 100% fr: 0.0%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 0.0%
  at 100% fr: 0.0%
Kumulus Acute Effects
on H. convergens

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 4.0%
  at 100% fr: 5.0%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 5.0%
  at 100% fr: 5.0%
Warrior Acute Effects
on H. convergens

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 83.0%
  at 100% fr: 93.0%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 80.0%
  at 100% fr: 96.0%
Rimon Acute Effects
on H. convergens

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 0.0%
  at 100% fr:0.0%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 0.0%
  at 100% fr: 0.0%
Delegate Acute Effects
on H. convergens

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 3.3%
  at 100% fr: 0.0%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 4.2%
  at 100% fr: 4.0%
Exirel (Cyazypyr) Acute Effects
on H. convergens

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 17.0%
  at 100% fr: 3.3%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 2.0%
  at 100% fr: 3.3%
Altacor Acute Effects
on H. convergens

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 10.0%
  at 100% fr: 5.0%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 5.5%
  at 100% fr: 5.5%
Kocide/Manzate Acute Effects
on C. carnea

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 0.0%
  at 100% fr: 0.0%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 0.0%
  at 100% fr: 0.0%
Kumulus Acute Effects
on C. carnea

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 0.0%
  at 100% fr: 0.0%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 0.0%
  at 100% fr: 0.0%
Warrior Acute Effects
on C. carnea

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 30.0%
  at 100% fr: 100%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 2.8%
  at 100% fr: 25.0%
Rimon Acute Effects
on C. carnea

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 0.0%
  at 100% fr: 0.0%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 13.9%
  at 100% fr: 11.1%
Delegate Acute Effects
on C. carnea

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 0.0%
  at 100% fr: 44.0%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 0.0%
  at 100% fr: 2.8%
Exirel (Cyazypyr) Acute Effects
on C. carnea

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 26.7%
  at 100% fr: 80.0%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 0.0%
  at 100% fr: 5.6%
Altacor Acute Effects
on C. carnea

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 0.0%
  at 100% fr: 46.7%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 2.8%
  at 100% fr: 0.0%
Kocide/Manzate Acute Effects
on D. brevis

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 0.0%
  at 100% fr: 0.0%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 0.0%
  at 100% fr: 13.5%
Kumulus Acute Effects
on D. brevis

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 3.3%
  at 100% fr: 10.0%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 16.7%
  at 100% fr: 16.7%
Warrior Acute Effects
on D. brevis

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 50.0%
  at 100% fr: 100%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 69.0%
  at 100% fr: 100%
Rimon Acute Effects
on D. brevis

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 3.3%
  at 100% fr: 6.7%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 55.2%
  at 100% fr: 86.2%
Delegate Acute Effects
on D. brevis

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 6.7%
  at 100% fr: 10.0%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 0.0%
  at 100% fr: 2.8%
Exirel (Cyazypyr) Acute Effects
on D. brevis

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 0.0%
  at 100% fr: 3.3%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 0.0%
  at 100% fr: 3.5%
Altacor Acute Effects
on D. bevis

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 0.0%
  at 100% fr: 0.0%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 3.5%
  at 100% fr: 0.0%
Kocide/Manzate Acute Effects
on T. pallidus

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 0.0%
  at 100% fr: 0.0%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: ND
  at 100% fr: 12.5%
Kumulus Acute Effects
on T. pallidus

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 8.0%
  at 100% fr: 68.0%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: ND
  at 100% fr: ND
Warrior Acute Effects
on T. pallidus

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 57.6%
  at 100% fr: 100%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: ND
  at 100% fr: 92.7%
Rimon Acute Effects
on T. pallidus

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 6.2%
  at 100% fr: 14.3%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: ND
  at 100% fr: 12.5%
Delegate Acute Effects
on T. pallidus

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 100%
  at 100% fr: 100%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: ND
  at 100% fr: 86.0%
Exirel (Cyazypyr) Acute Effects
on T. pallidus

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 82.9%
  at 100% fr: 87.8%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: ND
  at 100% fr: 100%
Altacor Acute Effects
on T. pallidus

Adult Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: 17.5%
  at 100% fr: 0.0%
Juvenile Corrected Mortality
  at 10% fr: ND
  at 100% fr: 61.7%
Wooly Apple Aphid Parasitoid
Aphelinus mali
  This tiny parasitic wasp is the primary natural enemy of woolly apple aphid. It was introduced to Oregon from the northeastern US in 1928 and has since spread throughout the Pacific Northwest.
Western Predatory Mite
Galendromus occidentalis
  This predaceous mite is native to the Western US. It feeds on spider mites, rust mites and exposed blister mites.
Ladybird Beetle
Hippodamia convergens
  The Convergent Lady Beetle is just one of several lady beetles commonly found in orchards. Both adults and larvae feed on aphids, and other soft bodied prey.
Green Lacewing
Chrysoperla carnea
  Green lacewing larvae are voracious generalist predators. They are known to feed on aphids, mites, thrips, pear psylla, insect eggs, and can prey on caterpillars.
Pear Psylla Predator
Deraeorcoris brevis
  Both adults and nymphs of this predatory mirid bug feed on pear psylla, aphids, leafhoppers and scale insects.
Walnut aphid Parasitoid
Trioxys pallidus
  This tiny parasitic wasp is the primary natural enemy of walnut aphid. It was introduced to California from Iran in 1969.